* @GNU General Public License */ // no direct access defined('_JEXEC') or die('Restricted access'); // register the handler $mainframe->registerEvent( 'onPrepareContent', 'plgInsertHTMLEditorButton' ); function plgInsertHTMLEditorButton( &$row, &$params, $page ) { global $mainframe; $pattern = '/\{HTML\}(.*?)\{\/HTML\}/i'; // match {HTML}...{/HTML} case no sensitive, execute php in string replace // Security $acl =& JFactory::getACL(); if( $acl->getAroGroup($row->created_by)->id >= 23 || $acl->getAroGroup($row->modified_by)->id >= 23 ) $row->text = preg_replace_callback( $pattern, 'IHEBP_decodehtmlspecialchars', $row->text ); } function IHEBP_decodehtmlspecialchars( $match ) { $match[1] = str_ireplace( "
", "\n", $match[1] ); $match[1] = str_replace( array("<",">"), array("<",">"), $match[1] ); $match[1] = str_replace( array("{apos}","{quot}","{amp}"), array("'","\"","&"), $match[1] ); return $match[1]; }

Gasification

Gasification is a partial oxidation process, whereby a carbon source such as coal, natural gas or biomass, is broken down into carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2), plus carbon dioxide (CO2) and possibly hydrocarbon molecules such as methane (CH4). This is achieved by reacting the material at high temperatures (>700°C), without combustion, with a controlled amount of oxygen and/or steam. This mix of gases is known as 'syngas' or product gas (or wood gas or coal gas, depending on the feedstock). It can also be referred to as syngas (from synthesis gas or synthetic gas).

The power derived from gasification is considered to be a source of renewable energy due to its calorific value. The gasification of fossil fuel derived from materials such as plastic is not considered to be renewable energy.

The advantage of gasification is that using syngas is potentially more efficient than direct combustion of the original fuel, because it can be combusted at higher temperatures. Syngas may be burned directly in gas engines, used to produce methanol and hydrogen, or converted into synthetic fuel. Gasification can also begin with materials which would otherwise have been disposed of, such as biodegradable waste. In addition, the high-temperature process refines out corrosive ash elements such as chloride and potassium, allowing clean gas production from otherwise problematic fuels. Gasification of fossil fuels is currently widely used on an industrial scale to generate electricity.

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Isn't gasification the same as Incineration?

The main difference between gasification and mass-burn incineration is that it uses less oxygen. Like other similar technologies, such as pyrolysis and plasma, it is still classified as incineration in the European Union (EU)‟s Waste Incineration Directive, and has to meet the mandatory emissions limits that it sets.

According to Friends of the Earth, gasification has several advantages over traditional mass-burn incineration:

1.) By using less oxygen, fewer air emissions may be produced.

2.) The plants are modular. They are made up of small units which can be added to or taken away as waste streams or volume change (e.g. with increased recycling)

3.) The processes are claimed to produce more useful products than standard incineration, such as gases, oils and solid char, which can be used as a fuel, or purified and used as a feedstock for petro-chemicals and other applications.

4.) The syngas may be used to generate energy more efficiently, if a gas engine (and potentially a fuel cell) is used, whilst incineration can only generate energy less efficiently via steam turbines.

The drawback with gasification is that it can undermine recycling and composting. Many people argue for a zero waste society and others believe this is not possible. However, what is clear is that gasification should only be considered after maximising recycling and composting options.


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